ulna: The bone of the lower arm that hinges at the elbow with the humerus.
uniface: A flake tool modified on either the dorsal or ventral side only.
uniformitarianism: Originally a concept in geology, the precept that the processes observable in the present can also be used to explain the past.
uniparental inheritance: A phenomenon, usually exhibited by extracellular genes, in which all progeny have the phenotype of only one parent.
unique (single-copy) sequences: A class of DNA sequences that has only one to a few copies per genome.
unlineal: Patrilineal (agnatic) or matrilineal (uterine) descent.
upstream activator sequences (UASs): In yeast, elements that are functionally similar to enhancers in other eukaryotes. UASs can function in either orientation and at variable distances upstream of the promoter.
uracil (U): A pyrimidine base found in RNA but not in DNA. In double-stranded RNA it pairs with adenine.
uranium series dating: A dating method based on the radioactive decay of isotopes of uranium. It has proved particularly useful for the period before 50,000 years ago, which lies outside the time range of radiocarbon dating.
uterine: See matrilineal.
uxorilocal: Residence of a married couple with the wife’s kin (formally called “matrilocal”).
Andrefsky, W., Jr. 1998. Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Keesing, R.M. 1975. Kin Groups and Social Structure. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace.
Renfrew, C., and P. Bahn. 1996. Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice. New York: Thames and Hudson Inc.
Russell, P.J. 1998. Genetics. Menlo Park: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Wolpoff, M. 1999. Paleoanthropology. second edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill.