vaginal process: A small downward projecting open cylinder on the petrous pyramid of the temporal, to the inside and in front of the mastoid process, that holds the styloid process.
valgus: An angulation of the femur in which the knees are closer together than the hip joints; “knock-kneed.”
variance: A statistical measure of how values vary from the mean. See also standard deviation.
variance of gene frequency: The variance in the frequency of an allele among a group of populations.
varves: Fine layers of alluvium sediment deposited in glacial lakes. Their annual deposition makes them a useful source of dating.
vascularized: Having blood vessels.
vegetative reproduction: See asexual reproduction.
ventral: The belly side of an animal; the opposite of dorsal.
ventral surface of flake: The smooth surface of a detached piece that contains no previous flake removals excetp sometimes an eraillure flake scar on the bulb of force.
vertebra: One of the bony segments of the vertebral column.
vertebral canal: See neural canal.
vertebral column: A structure made up of the vertebrae, from the cervical to the thoracic and lumbar.
vertebral spine: A blade of bone projecting dorsally from a vertebra, serving as an attachment site for several ligaments and muscles, also called a spinous process.
vibrissae: Facial hairs especially sensitive to touch, surrounding the mouth of many animals.
viral oncogene: A viral gene that transforms a cell it infects to a cancerous state. See also cellular oncogene; oncogenesis.
virilocal: Residence of a married couple with the husband’s kin (formerly called “patrilocal”). Residence rules can be further distinguished as viri-patrilocal (with the husband’s father – patri-virilocal expresses the same pattern), viri-avunculocal (or avunculo-virilocal) – residence with the husband’s maternal uncle.
virulent phage: A phage like T4, which always follows the lytic cycle when it infects bacteria.
visible mutation: A mutation that affects the morphology or physical appearance of an organism.
visual cortex: The outer portion of the brain at the rear of the cerebrum responsible for visual input and association.
visual overlap: The ability to see objects simultaneously with both eyes, a requirement of three-dimensional vision.
Andrefsky, W., Jr. 1998. Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Keesing, R.M. 1975. Kin Groups and Social Structure. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace.
Renfrew, C., and P. Bahn. 1996. Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice. New York: Thames and Hudson Inc.
Russell, P.J. 1998. Genetics. Menlo Park: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Wolpoff, M. 1999. Paleoanthropology. second edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill.